definition of the Internet

 What is the meaning of the Internet

The Internet: The Internet is a global communication system for transmitting data across different types of media. It can be described as a global network that connects different networks, whether they are private, public, commercial, academic, or government networks, using wireless technologies or optical fibers. The computer uses the control protocol Transmission / Internet Protocol., which provides it with a host that enables it to access the Internet, and the Internet has raised the standards of regular networks to global standards. 

Internet services: Internet users rely on various technologies for applications and networks, and they use services provided by the Internet, such as  e-mail. Audio and video conference services. Watch and download movies and games. Transfer data and share files. Forums. Social networks. Messages or instant chat. Online shopping. Financial services.

The stages of the development of the Internet: The Internet has developed significantly during the period extending from the fifties to the present, as there has been a steady increase in the size of networks and the variety of services they provide, forcing designers to overcome the problems of incompatibility between computer systems and components and manage data traffic, and reach an international agreement on technical standards. , Which led to the development of operating systems and the expansion of the field of research related to queuing theory, and the division of network functions into successive layers governed by a standard protocol and a set of rules that are implemented in programs or devices in addition to the technical development of Internet design in a way. Centralized and shared, which opened the door to innovation and encouraged informal cooperation around the world. 

Initial endpoint networks: The first computers were not designed to interact with users or to communicate with other computers, after which computer scientists began experimenting with transferring data from one device to another, and the forms of networks in the 1950s and early 1960s were systems for connecting end devices to computers instead of connecting computers to each other. 
Most of the research related to computer science was funded by the US military due to the current Cold War with the Soviet Union, including the SAGE project, which is a computerized defense system for early warning that detects missile attacks, and the project was made up of centers, each containing a computer that received Data via telephone lines from radar installations and military bases, and this project used modem technology and developed it, whereby digital computer data were converted into analog signals that could be sent over the telephone network, after which it became Modems were available for home use in 1958.

The system of capitalism and the growth of transportation and communication: systems provided the impetus for the creation of huge communication networks, to enable companies to share information with each other, such as airlines and stock trading companies, where American Airlines and IBM created the Saber system to book tickets online based on the SIG system, which connected two thousand US-based terminal networks to a single mainframe computer, also established the agency automated pricing system in the United States of America a network of stock prices in 1970.

Research networks: The end networks relied on a hub-and-spoke model that connected multiple users to one mainframe computer, and in the period from the late sixties to the late seventies, scientists built more complex networks that include multiple computers, and researchers experimented with new technologies To break down the barriers that prevent the exchange of data between different computer systems, which led to the development in the field of networking that allowed the participation of rare and expensive computers, which in turn increased accessibility while reducing costs, the ability to exchange data, workability and communication between users in different places, and an opportunity to develop Theoretical concepts and their practical application. One of the most important primary research networks; The American ARPANET, the British NPL Mark, and the French Cyclades Network (CYCLADES), and these networks used a new communication technology called Packet Switching. The division of the data desired to be sent into small units called packets that are sent through the network individually, and this allowed to increase the efficiency of the links, in addition to the ability to send the packets from the same connection to its destination in different ways, which allowed the distribution of traffic between the links, and to respond to any breakdown in The network by directing traffic to another location, which provided flexibility, prevented congestion and increased network reliability. The most successful electronic application for research networks was e-mail, which became a standard service in the early 1970s, and gained surprising popularity because it presented an unprecedented opportunity for interaction. Continuing with remote users, and although the network was not available to the general public, it produced solutions to subsequent technical problems, and was an important resource that paved the way for future innovation, and the early efforts To build international multilateral networks that have contributed to the global cooperation for developing the Internet.

Private and public networks In the mid-1970s, the emergence of research networks coincided with three other systems: private networks provided by computer companies, public networks built by national telecommunications companies, and popular networks of individuals. Computer companies such as IBM introduced Its own packet switching technology after the success of the reciprocal packet technology in research networks, such as the network architecture system, Xerox network services, and others. Many companies used private networks, and they were more distributed enabling access to data independently. Central Thus, it reflected the need for an economic globalization that accelerated in the 1980s and after, but it was not compatible with computers from competing companies, which led to an obstacle to building a national or international network, in addition to that it did not adhere to the applicable technical standards, so the telecommunications companies announced Patriotism in Europe, Canada, and Japan have announced plans to build data networks that will be available to any user, regardless of the brand of the computer used, to provide the public with an alternative.  Public data networks provided the first Internet access to many of the world's population, and also provided new types of content and services, making them more relevant to non-technical users, as France Telecom introduced the Minitel system; It is a free terminal network that enables users to access free online directories and a variety of paid services. It has also provided a prototype for e-commerce, in the form of purchasing airline tickets, mail-orders retail, banking and stock trading. It used low public data networks. The cost is the same as simple programs and dial-up connections for exchanging mail and other services between informal users and called popular networks, the most famous of which were USENET using Unix protocols, Bitnet using IBM protocols, and These networks provided connectivity to people who did not have access to the official network infrastructure.

The new design The scientists: researchers wanted to connect the ARABNET network, so the DARPA system was developed, which uses two new networks to connect: Radio wireless and satellite communications, but it faced some problems, as the wireless links were unreliable, and the satellites faced delays, in addition to the original ARABNET protocols were not suitable for such a diverse, interconnected system, so the search for a new connection technology continued.  Technical development prompted an increase in the use of local networks, which led to the invention of the Ethernet network by Robert Metcalfe, who took advantage of a previous network called Alohanit in the design, and Ethernet was based on a new technology called random access that allowed many users to share a communication channel without the need for routing procedures Complex, as the simplicity of random access design helped make it low-cost for a large number of users. In the early 1980s, Ethernet became commercially available and was adopted in universities, companies, and other institutions, but random access systems did not guarantee a reliable connection, so the need for a new system arose. 3] The structure of the Internet has evolved to include two main elements:  A group of protocols: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Whose job is to set up and manage a connection between two computers to ensure a reliable connection between the hosts. Using special computers called gateways as an interface between different networks, and gates are now known as routers that determine the path that the packets must take to get from one network to another. Among the important inventions that have contributed to the global growth of the Internet is the Domain Name System, which was established by Paul Mocabetris in 1984, which works to cancel the search for addresses by creating groups of names called domains, and private computers. servers that maintain address databases that correspond to each domain name.

The Web and the Internet: The Internet is a huge network of networks and infrastructure to link millions of computers together around the world, which enables any two computers to communicate with it, while the World Wide Web is a model for exchanging information and a way to access it.

Internet protocols: The Internet uses many protocols, including The e-mail protocol includes several protocols, including; Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). File Transfer Protocol. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Network News Transfer Protocol.

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